Polycystic ovary syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Also called as PCOS
In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), excessive amounts of androgens (“male” hormones such as testosterone) are produced by the ovaries. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of infertility, menstrual irregularity, and hirsute (excessive hair growth).
If you suffer from PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome), it’s hard to get pregnant. This is because, in this condition, there is irregular or no ovulation, which in turn doesn’t cause the release of the egg. … Hence, if you are not ovulating regularly or at all, with the help of ovulation drugs, you can get pregnant.
What happens when you have polycystic ovaries?
The condition was named because of the finding of enlarged ovaries containing multiple small cysts (polycystic ovaries). Although most women with PCOS have polycystic ovaries, some affected women do not. PCOS has also been referred to as Stein-Leventhal syndrome and polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD).
PCOS leads to disruptions in the menstrual cycle that typically begin around the onset of puberty. Menstrual cycles may be normal at first and then become irregular, or the onset of menses may be delayed. The menstrual irregularities of PCOS are accompanied by a lack of ovulation, so affected women may experience infertility. The desire for pregnancy is a factor that prompts many women with PCOS to first seek medical attention.
An increase in the production of androgens (male hormones) by the ovaries in PCOS may lead to excess hair growth in areas suggesting a male pattern, known as hirsutism. Thick, pigmented hair growth occurs on the upper lip, chin, around the nipples, and on the lower abdomen. Excess androgens can also lead to acne and male pattern balding.
Because of the absence or reduction in ovulation, women with PCOS have reduced levels of the hormone progesterone (normally produced after ovulation in the second half of the menstrual cycle). This can result in growth stimulation of the endometrium (lining tissues of the uterus), leading to dysfunctional uterine bleeding and breakthrough bleeding. Increased stimulation of the endometrium in the absence of progesterone production is a risk factor for the development of endometrial hyperplasia and uterine cancer.
Insulin resistance, weight gain, and obesity are also common in PCOS. Observers have suggested that about one-half of women with PCOS are obese. Insulin resistance, accompanied by elevated blood levels of insulin, occurs in most women with PCOS, independent of the presence of obesity.
Women with PCOS have also been reported to have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and many studies have shown abnormal blood lipid levels and elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a predictor of coronary artery disease. The combination of type 2 diabetes, elevated cholesterol and LDL levels, and elevated CRP levels suggest an increased risk of coronary heart disease on women with PCOS, although this risk has not yet been scientifically established.
Exams and Tests for PCOS
While the diagnosis of PCOS may be suggested by the characteristic symptoms, a number of laboratory tests can help establish the diagnosis and rule out other conditions that may be responsible for your symptoms.
Blood tests may be performed to evaluate levels of male hormones, such as DHEA and testosterone, as well as gonadotropins (hormones made in the brain that control production of hormones in the ovaries). Levels of hormones produced by the thyroid and adrenal glands may also be evaluated in order to exclude other causes of the symptoms.
Although the finding of cysts (small, fluid-filled sacs) in the ovaries is not conclusive for PCOS, many affected women will have polycystic ovaries. It is important to note that the presence of cysts in the ovaries is a common finding in women without PCOS as well. Imaging studies such as ultrasound can be safely used to demonstrate the presence of cysts in the ovaries. Ultrasound uses sound waves to generate an image of the ovaries; the procedure involves no radiation exposure or injected dyes and carries no risks for the patient. In some cases, particularly when other conditions such as ovarian or adrenal gland tumors are suspected, CT and MRI scans may be ordered
There are a number of treatments that have been shown to be effective in the treatment of PCOS. Treatment is dependent upon the stage of the woman’s life and may be directed toward establishing regular menstrual cycles, controlling abnormal uterine bleeding, controlling excess hair growth, management of associated conditions such as insulin resistance, or promoting the chances of pregnancy when desired.
A number of medical conditions may be associated with PCOS, and treatment may be required that is directed at these co-existent conditions. Associated conditions that may require specific medical treatments include:
- type 2 diabetes,
- insulin resistance,
- elevated blood pressure (hypertension),
- heart disease,
- obesity, and
- elevated blood cholesterol and
What Are the Home Remedies for PCOS?
As with any chronic condition, maintenance of a healthy lifestyle can help maximize quality of life and minimize symptoms. Proper nutrition and regular exercise can help manage the weight gain and elevated blood pressure that may accompany PCOS. Weight loss has also been shown in many studies to reduce some of the effects of excess testosterone in women with PCOS.
Medical Treatment for PCOS
Medications are the mainstay of treatment for both the menstrual and hormonal symptoms of PCOS as well as associated medical conditions.
There is no cure yet, but there are many ways you can decrease or eliminate PCOSsymptoms and feel better. Your doctor may offer different medicines that can treat symptoms such as irregular periods, acne, excess hair, and elevated blood sugar. Fertility treatments are available to help women get pregnant. When left untreated, PCOS can increase a woman’s risk for endometrial (lining of the uterus) cancer. With PCOS, the ovary does not pop out an egg regularly.
WHAT NOT TO EAT IF U HAVE PCOS
An anti-inflammatory diet: Anti-inflammatory foods, such as berries, fatty fish, leafy greens, and extra virgin olive oil, may reduce inflammation-related symptoms, such as fatigue. … It may also help manage PCOS symptoms. A DASH diet is rich in fish, poultry, fruits, vegetables whole grain, and low-fat dairy
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PCOS AND PCOD
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) is a problem in which a woman’s hormones are out of balance. … That is why it is called PCOS. The cysts are not harmful but lead to hormone imbalances. Early diagnosis and treatment can help control the symptoms and prevent long-term problems.
DIET FOR PCOD PATIENTS
- Try a Low-GI Diet. …
- Don’t Skimp on Breakfast. …
- Eat Enough Healthy Fats. …
- Cut Down on Carbs. …
- Eat Plenty of Lean Protein. …
- Stay Active. …
- Some Supplements May Be Helpful.