Immunotherapy as a best way for the cancer treatment
Cancer is a state which involves an abnormal increase in the number of cells, with a potentiality to invade or spread to other parts of the body and destroy their function. Every individual is born with an immune system that acts as a security checkpoint. The immune system does possess B and T lymphocytes, B -cells act as the military intelligence and T -cells act as soldiers it also possesses some receptors that scan normal cells and abnormal cells like a virus and some other cells. abnormal cells are detected and removed by the T -cells, but in some conditions, T-cells fail to detect and eliminate cancer cells. This is because of higher mutations in cancer cells leads to a development of some of the receptors like PD -L1 which acts as the signal jammer of the T -cell. This leads to failure in the work of T -cells against the cancer cells
In normal conditions, B-cells are like the body’s military intelligence system, search targets and sending defences to lock onto them. T cells are like the soldiers, destroying the foreign agents that the intelligence system has identified. T-cells get attached to the target cell, cytotoxic T cells do possess TCR(T-cell receptor), CD8 and some receptors and target cells do possess MHC molecule ,when T-cell attaches to abnormal cells they do release some toxic materials like perforins and some others materials perforins are the proteins one of the main cytolytic proteins of cytolytic granules, and it is known to be a key effectors molecule for T-cell and natural killer-cell-mediated cytolysis because of this granules lead to pore in target cells and finally it leads to the dying of the target cells and cytotoxic T -cell gets released from the target cells.
Mechanism of T-cell how it attacks the abnormal cell
Whereas in cancer cells which are highly mutated in that condition T -cell does not show any of its action this is because T -cells possess PD-1 which acts as the signalling system, cancer cells possess PD-L1 molecule which acts as the signal jammer of the T-cell. and B7.1 or CD 80 that ac ts as the alarm when something is wrong which helps in the activation of T-cells by inhibiting the stimulus of T-cell finally, that leads to the escape of the tumor cells from the immune checkpoints, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4(CTLA-4) receptor expressed on activated T -cells which function as an inhibitory receptor which inhibits T-cell activation not only this two receptors so many receptors are present which makes cancer cells to live freely and T – cells are gets inhibited their activity. B y triggering some of these sites may leads to the development of treatment for many cancer diseases like lung disease and some other disease.
PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH
PD-1 (Programmed death- 1) is expressed on monocytes, T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and many tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL).PD-1 is expressed in regulatory T cells and able to facilitate the proliferation of regulatory T cells and restrain immune response3, PD-L1 (Programmed death-ligand 1)is expressed in various cancers cells , especially in Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), gastric cancer, melanoma, hepatocellular, renal cell carcinoma as well as various leukemias and so on4.PD-L1 is induced by multiple proinflammatory molecules like TNF-α, LPS, Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and Vascular endothelial growth factor, as well as the cytokines IL-4and IL-10, with IFN-γ being the most potent inducer5. PD-L1 is regulated by oncogenes( a gene that has the power to cause cancer), also known as the inherent immune resistance in cells. And drugs against this are ANTI-PD-1 and ANTI-PD-L1 are effective.
Research in immunotherapy gives a new wide space for the treatment of various cancer disease like myeloma, NSCLC and etc, when we compare this immunotherapy with that of radiotherapy,chemotherapy this gives a wide range of results with relatively safer, less toxic, effective and etc conditions anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody therapy has shown promise in a number of cancers, particularly melanoma and also antiPD-1/PD-L1 this therapy has shown an effect on patient with the NSCLC have been benefited.With the elaborated studies on a biological marker and combined treatment in the PD-1/PD-L1 or CTLA-4 will make a new sense in development of immunity against cancer diseases and which make a new revolution in the treatment of cancer disease.